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Legend: Fate of ceramide within the cell. Synthesis of ceramide in the ER results in two distinct pools of ceramide. One pool is glycosylated by glucosylceramide synthase (GCS). The other pool is transported to the Golgi apparatus where it received a phosphorylinositol headgroup from phosphatidylinositol through the action of inositolphosphorylceramide synthase (IPCS). Both complex sphingolipids end up in the plasma membrane from where they are eventually turned over by hydrolysis. Abbreviations: glycosylinositolphosphoylceramide synthase, (GIPCS); glucosylceramide glucosidase, (GCG); phospholipase C, (PLC); ceramidase, (CES); ceramide kinase, (CERK); sphingosine transfer protein, (STP); long chain base kinase, (LCBK); and dihydrosphingosine phosphate lyase, (DPL1).