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Legend: Biosynthesis of sphingobases and ceramides in the ER. Palmitoyl-CoA for the serine-palmitoyl transferase (SPT) reaction and ceramide synthesis are captured by SPT at the cytosolic face of the ER membrane. Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) also generated by elongation at the cytosolic face of the ER are incorporated into ceramides by ceramide synthase (CS). Phosphorylation of sphingobases by long-chain base kinase (LCBK) may facilitate their increase solubilization in the cytosol. Abbreviations: DSD: dihydrosphinganine Δ4-desaturase; FA2H: fatty acid 2-hydroxylase. KSR: 3-ketosphinganine reductase; LCBPP: long-chain base phosphate phosphatase; SBH: sphingoid base hydroxylase ; SLD: sphingolipid Δ8-desaturase; STP: sphingosine transfer protein.